Altruism blossoms in neighborhoods populated with highly educated people working in high-status jobs, according to new research. Altruism is a universal human trait, but little is known about its within-population variation. Socio-economic status positively impacts altruism, but specific socio-economic variables - such as economic resources, education, occupation, and crime rate - behind this relationship remain [...]
The manipulation of rivers in California is jeopardizing the resilience of native Chinook salmon. It compresses their migration timing to the point that they crowd their habitats. They may miss the best window for entering the ocean and growing into adults, new research shows.
While trying to develop a comparatively easy, inexpensive way to give physicians and their patients with bladder cancer a better idea of likely outcome and best treatment options, scientists found that sophisticated new subtyping techniques designed to do this provide no better information than long-standing pathology tests.
Born pink, blind, and helpless, giant pandas typically weigh about 100 grams at birth -- the equivalent of a stick of butter. Their mothers are 900 times more massive than that. That raises a question that has vexed biologists: why the disparity? No one knows the answer, but by comparing bone growth across newborn bears, dogs and other animals, scientists find that one idea doesn't hold up.
Based on a 5-year excavation of two Moai found within the Easter Island quarry called Rano Raraku, the Easter Island Statue Project released the first definitive study to reveal the quarry as a complex landscape and link soil fertility, agriculture, quarrying and the sacred nature of the Moai. Chemistry testing suggests the soil in the quarry itself was made more fertile by the act of quarrying, with traces of taro, banana and sweet potato in the area.
Birds and mammals are on extreme ends of the airflow spectrum. Mammals inhale oxygen-rich air and they exhale depleted air, exhibiting a so-called tidal flow pattern. In contrast, bird breath travels tidally through part of the respiratory system, but in a one-way loop throughout most of the lung. Biologists have discovered that Savannah monitor lizards have lung structures that are hybrid system of bird and mammal lungs.
A new study finds that the conscious perception of visual location occurs in the frontal lobes of the brain, rather than in the visual system in the back of the brain. The results are significant given the ongoing debate among neuroscientists on what consciousness is and where it happens in the brain.
Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery. Now, researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results could lead to new cancer treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy.
NASA’s Juno spacecraft spied the new Jovian cyclone on November 3, 2019, during its 23rd science pass of the gas giant. Juno launched on August 5, 2011, with the ambitious mission of finally seeing beneath the dense clouds covering Jupiter. On July 4, 2016, the probe finally reached the giant planet’s orbit. Soon after the [...]
Using a technique called quasar microlensing, a team of astronomers at the University of Oklahoma has detected populations of free-floating planet-mass objects - exoplanets and/or primordial black holes - in two extragalactic systems: a lensing galaxy called Q J0158-4325 and the lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1004+4112. These are only the second and third such detections [...]
An Antarctic field campaign last winter led by the US and Australia has successfully extracted some of the largest samples of air dating from the 1870s until today. Researchers will use the samples to look for changes in the molecules that scrub the atmosphere of methane and other gases.
Using NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, a team of planetary researchers have measured the speed and direction of winds in the Martian upper atmosphere between about 150 and 200 km (93-124 miles) above the surface. The results are published in two papers in the journal Science and the Journal of Geophysical Research: [...]
Scientists collected data from hundreds of feeding whales, allowing them to determine how much energy species of different sizes invest to capture their prey and which of these species reap the greatest rewards for their efforts. Their findings reveal that body size in all whales is limited by the availability of their prey, but only filter-feeding whales have evolved a feeding strategy that drives them to achieve the largest body sizes to have ever evolved.
A research team has previously shown that fatty particles from the bloodstream may boost the growth of breast cancer cells. They now show that through an unexpected mechanism not previously described in cancer cells, the fat particles bind to the breast cancer cell surface and are then taken into the cell, providing a large supply of fuel that drives proliferation of the cancer cells.