Scientists have succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. In their experiment, not only were quantum fluctuations visualized, but new information about the sizes, times and distributions of quantum events was extracted.
More than 150 different mutations in the light-sensing molecule rhodopsin can cause retinitis pigmentosa, characterized by a progressive loss of night and peripheral vision. A team has now developed a treatment for the condition. Successful results in dogs set the stage for testing in humans.
The method of fabricating objects via silicone molding has a long tradition. Until now, however, creating molds for casting complex objects required a lot of experience and still involved manual work, which made the process expensive and slow. Researchers have now developed a tool that not only automatically finds the best design of the molds but also delivers templates for so-called 'metamolds': Rigid molds that are 3D-printed and are used to fabricate the silicone molds.
Enzymes perform very specific functions and require only little energy -- which is why the biocatalysts are also of interest to the chemical industry. Biologists have now provided a summary on what is known about the mechanisms of enzymes in nature. Moreover, the authors outline a future vision: artificial biocatalysts that are not protein-based, as they usually are in nature, but which are rather made from DNA.
A longitudinal study examined anxiety, depression, social withdrawal, and submissiveness to predict the end of teen friendships. Do friendships end because of one child's mental health problems or do they end because of differences between friends on the degree to which each friend suffers from these problems? Findings show that children's personal struggles need not adversely impact their social relationships, and mental health issues do not necessarily ruin their chances of making and maintaining worthwhile friendships.
Researchers have discovered that non-flaming combustion (smoldering) of a porous specimen can sustain, even under nearly 1 percent of atmospheric pressure. The thermal structure of a 2-mm-diameter burning specimen at very near extinction condition was successfully measured using an embedded ultra-fine thermocouple, clarifying the key issues that lead to fire extinction at low pressures. The outcome of this research will contribute to improved space exploration fire safety strategies.
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature.
Researchers warn that a combination of nanoparticles and contaminants may form a cocktail that is harmful to our cells. In their study, 72 pct. of cells died after exposure to a cocktail of nano-silver and cadmium ions.
Researchers have successfully assembled enzyme-powered artificial cells that can float or sink depending on their internal chemical activity. The work provides a new approach to designing complex life-like properties in non-living materials.
Deforestation is suspected to have contributed to the mysterious collapse of Mayan civilization more than 1,000 years ago. A new study shows that the forest-clearing also decimated carbon reservoirs in the tropical soils of the Yucatan peninsula region long after ancient cities were abandoned and the forests grew back.
New study finds volatile gases emitted by forests increase the amount of diffuse light reaching the forests. The study shows that this increased diffuse sunlight enhanced the carbon absorbed by the world's forests by an amount equal to 10 percent of global fossil fuel emissions and industry emissions.
Researchers have uncovered a molecular mechanism behind one of biology's long-standing mysteries: why individuals carrying identical gene mutations for a disease end up having varying severity or symptoms of the disease. The study has exciting implications for future prediction of the severity of serious diseases such as cancer and autism spectrum disorder.
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is an inflammatory disorder with potential for tumor development. Here, unusual phosphorylation was observed on STAT3 in EBV-infected T- or NK-cells from patients with CAEBV. Researchers found that ruxolitinib, a drug that is currently used for treatment of myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera, could suppress the survival of these EBV-infected cells in a dose-dependent manner, and that STAT3 could be an important new target for treatment of CAEBV.