Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals and requires environmental triggers. A new study, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, shows that gut microbiota could play a big role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In multiple sclerosis, the body’s own immune system [...]
The age at which young women experience their first menstrual bleeding is linked to the age at which their sons start puberty, according to the largest study to investigate this association in both sons and daughters.
In a breakthrough human study, anti-oxidant, glutathione (GSH), which protects the brain from stress, has been found to be significantly depleted in Alzheimer's patients compared to normal subjects. As GSH is a very important anti-oxidant that protects the brain from free radicals, the findings give us another measure to use when diagnosing potential for the advancement of Alzheimer's disease or recognizing those that are in the throes of Alzheimer's advancement.
Researchers have demonstrated an integrated technique for monitoring specific biomolecules -- such as growth factors -- that could indicate the health of living cell cultures produced for the burgeoning field of cell-based therapeutics.
World energy consumption projections expect coal to stay one of the world's main energy sources in the coming decades, and a growing share of it will be used in CTL, the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers have developed iron-based catalysts that substantially reduce operating costs and open the door to capturing the large amounts of CO2 that are generated by CTL.
An antimicrobial signaling molecule called interferon lambda 4 has lower activity against the hepatitis C virus in the vast majority of humans compared with chimpanzees and African hunter-gatherer Pygmies, according to a new study.
Globally, the number of babies born through caesarean section (C-section) almost doubled between 2000 and 2015 -- from 12% to 21% of all births. While the life-saving surgery is still unavailable for many women and children in low-income countries and regions, the procedure is overused in many middle- and high-income settings.
Research has shown that mistakes in 'proofreading' the genetic code of retinal cells is the cause of a form of inherited blindness, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with splicing factor defects, which affects up to 2.5 million people worldwide.
Researchers have measured more than 19,000 tropical moths from 1,100 species to find out whether their size varies with elevation. The researchers found clear patterns: moths increase in size significantly at higher elevations.
The brain creates a map of our environment, which enables reliable spatial navigation. The Nobel Prize was awarded in 2014 for research into how this navigation system works at the cellular level. Researchers have now shown that the characteristics of this navigation system are also present in brain oscillations that can be measured using depth electrodes in the human brain. The possibility of testing the neuronal navigation system in this way may open up new approaches for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
Type 2 diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions around the world. The World Health Organization reports that more than 422 million people suffer from the disease, including over 1.2 million in Australia alone. The consequences of diabetes can be dire (cancer, kidney failure, and heart attacks) and its prevalence is rising fast. There is an urgent need to better understand how diabetes progresses -- and how it might be stopped.
Understanding how heart valve surgery may affect your cognition is important for older adults. To learn more, researchers reviewed studies to see how patients' cognition changed before and after heart valve surgery. They also looked at whether surgeries on two types of heart valves, the mitral or the aortic, were associated with better or worse outcomes.
Are human disturbances to the environment driving evolutionary changes in animals and plants? A new study finds that, on average, human disturbances don't appear to accelerate the process of natural selection. While the finding may seem reassuring, this unexpected pattern could reflect the limited number of species for which data were available.
Changing the way microbes are classified can reveal similarities among mammals' gut microbiomes, according to a new study that proposes an alternative method for classifying microbes to provide insight into human and environmental health.
Cytokines, small proteins that alert the body to infection and cause inflammation, have been found in the amniotic fluid of many women who gave birth prematurely. Now, researchers are looking into whether halting the immune response will stop preterm births.