Though modern horses now have a single toe, their earliest ancestors had three on their front legs, and four on the back. Scientists are shedding new light on what drove those changes, and in a new study show that the dual pressures of increasing body weight and shrinking side toes prompted early horses' middle toes to become dramatically stronger and better able to resist forces.
Not only people, but mammals like cats, dogs and horses suffer from symptoms and problems of food intolerance and allergies. Scientists have now condensed the knowledge about human and animal food allergies and intolerance into a new European position paper. It highlights the strong similarities in symptoms and triggers of adverse food reactions and stresses the need for more comparative studies on mechanisms and diagnosis of food intolerance.