Streetlights near waterways attract flying insects from the water and change the predator community living in the grass beneath the lights, new research has found. The findings show that artificial night-time lighting could have implications for the surrounding ecosystem and biodiversity, which should be considered when designing new lighting concepts.
Ocean observing systems are important as they provide information essential for monitoring and forecasting changes in Earth's climate on timescales ranging from days to centuries. A new report finds that continuity of ocean observations is vital to gain an accurate understanding of the climate, and calls for a decadal, national plan that is adequately resourced and implemented to ensure critical ocean information is available to understand and predict future changes.
About 3.5 billion years ago volcanic activity on Earth’s only permanent natural satellite produced an atmosphere 1.5 times thicker than is currently on Mars, according to new research published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters. “It just completely changes the way we think of the Moon. It becomes a much more dynamic planetary [...]
A new vaccine under development provoked an immune response to 72 forms of the bacteria that's responsible for pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. That's up from the 23 forms of bacteria covered by current immunizations. The new vaccine, which represents the 'most comprehensive' coverage of pneumococcal disease to date, could greatly reduce the number of deaths from the disease.
A yeast protein that evolved from scratch can fold into a compact three-dimensional shape -- contrary to the general understanding of young proteins. Recent evidence suggests new genes can arise from the non-coding sections, or 'junk,' DNA and that those new genes could code for brand-new proteins. Scientists thought such newly evolved proteins were works-in-progress that could not fold into complex shapes the way more ancient proteins do.
A mother's diet during pregnancy, particularly one that is high-fat, may program her baby for future risk of certain diseases such as diabetes, new research shows. The new study shows that switching the offspring to a new diet -- a low-fat diet, in this case -- can reverse that programming.
Certain nerves sustain prostate cancer growth by triggering a switch that causes tumor vessels to proliferate, show researchers. Their earlier research -- which first implicated nerves in fueling prostate cancer -- has prompted a pilot study testing whether beta blockers (commonly used for treating hypertension) can kill cancer cells in tumors of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Mutations in the TMEM106B gene significantly increases a person's risk of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the second most common cause of dementia in those under 65, researchers have demonstrated. While the data confirmed the gene's clinical relevance, it didn't tell researchers how it caused the disease -- which is vital to developing new therapeutics.
A recent study from the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital done in conjunction with researchers from Colorado School of Public Health at the University at Colorado and Temple University used data from a large, national sports injury surveillance system to determine the effect of state-level TBI laws on trends of new and recurrent concussions among US high school athletes.
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.
A main cause for spinal disc degeneration is thought to be a change in the water content in the intervertebral disk. A research team used a novel magnetic resonance imaging technique, called apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, which directly assessed the movements and dynamics of the water in the intervertebral disk and other spinal structures. The ADC maps provided precise assessments and correlations with degeneration.
A delayed neurological response to processing the written word could be an indicator that a patient with mild memory problems is at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, research has discovered.
An international team of researchers has used advanced DNA sequencing methods to retrieve and analyze mitochondrial genome data from two lineages of saber-toothed cats, Smilodon and Homotherium. Published in the journal Current Biology, the results suggest that these iconic felids diverged from each other about 18 million years ago and shared a common ancestor with [...]