A subpopulation of melanoma cancer cells has been discovered in the blood vessels of tumors, researchers report. These cells, which mimic non-cancerous endothelial cells that normally populate blood vessels, could provide researchers with another target for cancer therapies.
Researchers have pioneered a new approach to manufacturing solar cells that requires less silicon and can accommodate silicon with more impurities than is currently the standard. Those changes mean that solar cells can be made much more cheaply than at present.
The effect that genes have on our brain depends on our age, researchers say. It has been known for a number of years that particular genetic variations are of importance for the functioning of neural circuits in the brain. Just how these effects differ in the various stages of life has until recently not been fully understood. This international study has been able to demonstrate that genetic variations at different times in our lives can actually have opposite effects on the brain, which provides an explanation for the differences that clinicians observe in the psychiatric symptoms and response to medications of adolescents and adults.
Our immune system defends us from harmful bacteria and viruses, but, if left unchecked, the cells that destroy those invaders can turn on the body itself, causing auto-immune diseases like type-1 diabetes or multiple sclerosis. A molecule called insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) boosts the body’s natural defense against this ‘friendly fire’, scientists have found. The findings are especially exciting because IGF-1 is already approved for use in patients, which could speed up the move to clinical trials for treating auto-immune diseases.
Bright colors appear on a fruit fly’s transparent wings against a dark background as a result of light refraction. Researchers have now demonstrated that females choose a mate based on the males’ hidden wing colors.
Researchers have developed a method to assess the efficacy of anti-particle filters and masks. This method will help to decide the most suitable system depending on the professional activity. Thanks to the development of a simulation model for the breathing process of a person in a dusty work environment, researchers have designed a method capable to experimentally determine the efficacy of a series of existing filters and masks in the market.
A report by Chinese researchers a few months ago was a small sensation: they appeared to have found the cause for why organisms age. Another international team of scientists has now refuted a basic assumption of the article. The reasons for aging thus remain elusive, they say.
The question if an individual will suffer from relapsing major depressive disorder is not determined by accident. Neuroscientists have chosen a new research approach, using computer-based models to study the disease. They show that chronic depression is triggered due to an unfortunate combination of internal and external factors.
Scientists see good times approaching for astrophysicists after hatching a new observational strategy to distill detailed information from galaxies at the edge of the Universe. Using two world-class supercomputers, the researchers were able to demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach by simulating the formation of a massive galaxy at the dawn of cosmic time. The ALMA radio telescope – which stands at an elevation of 5,000 meters in the Atacama Desert of Chile, one of the driest places on earth – was then used to forge observations of the galaxy, showing how their method improves upon previous efforts.
In contrast to national trends, a study performed at a large, American hospital finds no racial difference in the risk of pregnancy-related death between African American and Caucasian women, report researchers.
A large international clinical trial has shed new light on the effectiveness of current hospital protocols for managing blood pressure in stroke patients. The study has tried to solve two major conundrums faced by doctors when treating people who have suffered a stroke -- should blood pressure be lowered using medicated skin patches, and should existing blood pressure medication be stopped or continued after a stroke?
For the first time, a team of interdisciplinary researchers have made recordings of neurons associated with visual perception inside the poppy seed-sized brain of a jumping spider using a hair-sized tungsten recording electrode.
Patients diagnosed with high blood pressure are given better control of their condition from a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention than physician management alone, according to new research.
A new collaborative model in cancer care has reduced the rates at which patients were sent to intensive care or readmitted to the hospital after discharge. In the new treatment model, medical oncologists and palliative care physicians partnered in a "co-rounding" format to deliver cancer care for patients admitted to a solid tumor unit. The model fostered collaboration and communication between the specialists, who met several times a day to discuss patient care.
It is an intricate network of activity that enables breast cancer cells to move from the primary breast tumor and set up new growths in other parts of the body, a process known as metastasis. Researchers have now discovered an unexpected link between a transcription factor known to regulate speech and language development and metastatic colonization of breast cancer.
BiogàsPlus, a technology which allows increasing the production of biogas by 200% with a controlled introduction of iron oxide nanoparticles to the process of organic waste treatment, has been developed by scientists.
Researchers have designed and manufactured new devices based on metamaterials (artificial materials with properties not found in nature). They achieved the first experimental demonstration ever with epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. “These materials have surprising characteristics, such as the fact that a wave traveling within them can do so at almost infinite speed and, thus, can be transmitted from one place to another without hardly any loss of energy, no matter how unusual or complicated the shape of the material," according to a researcher.