For the first time, researchers have captured images of the brain during the initial hours and days of learning a new language. They use an artificial language with real structures to show how new linguistic information is integrated into the same brain areas used for your native language.
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The study connects e-cigarette use in colleges to high rates of alcohol consumption and other factors such as: gender, race/ethnicity and traditional cigarettes. The rise of e-cigarettes may be a positive consequence of cigarette smokers who use this product to quit smoking or to avoid the toxicity of traditional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use does not always reflect an attempt to reduce cigarette smoking and may instead indicate a general propensity to use psychoactive substances, especially among emerging adults.
Topological insulators behave like insulators at their core and allow good conductivity on their surface. They owe their characteristics to a new quantum state within the material discovered in 2007 and 2009 for 2-D and 3-D materials, respectively. Scientists studying the surface of ring-shaped, or toric, topological insulators, have just discovered some characteristics that had only previously been confirmed in spheres.
Northern wrens are larger and more resilient to winter weather than those living in the south, new research reveals. The research means that populations inhabiting regions where winters are more severe show some form of adaptation. The research team say that their findings have particular relevance to our understanding of how birds and other species are able to respond to climate change.
One of the most basic components of any communications network is a power splitter that allows a signal to be sent to multiple users and devices. Researchers have now developed just such a device for terahertz radiation -- a range of frequencies that may one day enable data transfer up to 100 times faster than current cellular and Wi-Fi networks.
Researchers have identified immune cells vital for protecting us from potentially deadly C. difficile. Surprisingly, those cells are often vilified for their role in causing asthma and allergies. But when it comes to C. difficile, they could be the difference in life and death.
A new twist on the use of renewable energy is saving children's lives in Africa. The innovation -- a solar-powered oxygen delivery system -- is providing concentrated oxygen in hospital for children suffering from severe pneumonia.
Scientists have figured out a root cause of the lung damage that occurs in up to 10 percent of premature infants who develop necrotizing enterocolitis, a disorder that damages and kills the lining of the intestine.
The targeted therapy everolimus may be safely combined with R-CHOP for new, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the results of a pilot study. R-CHOP is a combination of drugs used to treat lymphoma. The combination includes rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone.
The earthquake distribution on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges differs fundamentally from other spreading zones. Water circulating at a depth of up to 15 kilometers leads to the formation of rock that resembles soft soap. This is how the continental plates on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges may move without jerking, while the same process in other regions leads to many minor earthquakes, according to geophysicists.
Underground army ants can keep their nests -- called bivouacs -- warm with their body heat; this social warming may enable fragile offspring to survive in chilly mountain forests, according to researchers.
Last year, the most extensive clinical face transplant to date was successfully carried out. A complete report on this procedure -- including the extensive organizational and training program created to prepare for it -- has just been published.
An epidemiological study analyzing the association of butter consumption with chronic disease and mortality finds that butter was only weakly associated with total mortality, not associated with heart disease, and slightly inversely associated (protective) with diabetes.
The persistence of heritable disease raises an evolutionary paradox. When DNA goes awry, and a harmful mutation sprouts up that affects survival, why aren't these simply purged from a population over generations? Authors of a new report have performed the first systematic test of a counteracting evolutionary force that may work to maintain disease mutations at a higher frequency than expected. This force, called balancing selection, can lead to the maintenance of mutations over long evolutionary times.