Over the course of the 20th century, genes began to play a greater role in the height and body mass index (BMI) of Americans, while their significance decreased in educational outcomes and occurrence of heart disease.
In recent years, numerous diseases have been tied to variations in gut microbiota. The probiotics industry targets gut and intestinal health by developing products built mostly around enzyme cultures and bacteria. But a new study suggests that the underlying health and physical forces of the gut are as important as the bacteria inside in shaping communities of intestinal microbiota, and offers insights into the problems experienced by humans with a birth defect called Hirschsprung's disease.
Engineers have discovered that interfacing two particular oxide-based materials makes them highly conductive, a boon for future electronics that could result in much more power-efficient laptops, electric cars and home appliances that also don't need cumbersome power supplies.
A new study finds that three years post-bone marrow transplant, the incidence of severe chronic graft-versus-host disease was 44 percent in patients who had received transplants from matched, unrelated donors (MUD) and 8 percent in patients who had received umbilical cord blood transplants (CBT).
Approximately one quarter of pregnant women may suffer from Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), the recurrent cessation or limitation of normal breathing during sleep, new research suggests. In addition to being the cause of daytime fatigue, the consequences of untreated OSA include but are not limited to high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and heart disease.
Silicon-air batteries are viewed as a promising and cost-effective alternative to current energy storage technology. However, they have thus far only achieved relatively short running times. Researchers have now discovered why.
Many in the general public think scientific and technological innovations bring helpful change to society, but they are more concerned than excited when it comes to the potential use of emerging technologies to make people's minds sharper, their bodies stronger and healthier than ever before, according to a new survey. A majority of Americans would be 'very' or 'somewhat' worried about gene editing (68%); brain chips (69%); and synthetic blood (63%), while no more than half say they would be enthusiastic about each of these developments. While some people say they would be both enthusiastic and worried, overall, concern outpaces excitement.
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has concluded that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of visual skin examination by a clinician to screen for skin cancer in asymptomatic adults.
Among patients with one to three brain metastases, the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, compared with SRS combined with whole brain radiotherapy, resulted in less cognitive deterioration at three months, according to a study.
Between 2006 and 2014, late preterm and early term birth rates decreased in the United States and an association was observed between early term birth rates and decreasing clinician-initiated obstetric interventions, according to a study.
Among children born with the chromosome disorders trisomy 13 or 18 in Ontario, Canada, early death was the most common outcome, but 10 percent to 13 percent survived for 10 years, according to a study. Among children who underwent surgical interventions, one-year survival was high.
Seeing fruit 'turn bad and going to waste' inspired a team of researchers in China to explore using atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma as a novel solution to extend the shelf life of fruit and other perishable foods. Now their computational study of how air plasma interacts with bacterial biofilms on an apple's surface suggests that plasma technology could be used to decontaminate food in the future.
Biologists have long thought that some frogs evolved to mate on land instead of in water to better guard eggs and tadpoles from predation. New research now suggests that mating on land in many species might be a strategy male frogs use to ensure that their own DNA gets passed on, instead of their rivals'. Sexual selection may trump natural selection in the evolution of these reproductive behaviors.
A team of scientists has made a puzzling observation while studying the size and distribution of craters on the dwarf planet Ceres -- the largest object in the tumultuous Main Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter. Scientists think Ceres' missing large craters may have been erased over time, as a result of its peculiar composition and internal evolution.