For the first time, two mathematicians have created a 3-D simulation of the mass transport capabilities of mode-2 waves. Such models will help define how mode-2 waves can carry materials that are either beneficial (such as phytoplankton and other food sources) or detrimental (such as crude oil and other contaminants) between ecosystems.
The bacterium Burkholderia multivorans evolves and adapts in bursts to survive in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, according to a new study. The work, believed to be the first retrospective look at the evolution of this microorganism, indicates that B. multivorans directly or indirectly targets adherence, metabolism and changes to the cell 'envelope' to stick around and evade antibiotics.
A symbiotic relationship that has existed since the time of the dinosaurs is at risk of ending, as habitat loss and environmental change mean that a species of Australian crayfish and the tiny worms that depend on them are both at serious risk of extinction.
The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. Now researchers have built a tabletop instrument that can perform measurements that were only previously possible at large national magnet labs.
Telemedicine, which allows doctors to communicate, diagnose and even treat their patients remotely is on the rise thanks to advances in information technology. It allows healthcare workers to securely monitor patients in inaccessible parts of the world as well as providing more timely responses for patients in many situations. New research suggests that the well-known social networking site, Facebook, and smart phone use could make telemedicine even more common and useful in healthcare.
A report commissioned by the United Nations offers a glimmer of hope to those managing the impact of bleaching on the world's coral reefs, including the Great Barrier Reef. The 35 authors of the United Nations Environmental Programme in-depth report say as the world's surface reefs are being threatened, part of the ecosystem may survive in these barely known deeper environments, known as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs).
Chemistry has provided many key tools and techniques to the biological community in the last twenty years. We can now make proteins that Mother Nature never thought of, image unique parts of live cells and even see cells in live animals. Biologists now take these accomplishments a step further, reporting advances in both how proteins are made and how you can see their expression patterns in live animals.
Growing tissues and organs in the lab for transplantation into patients could become easier after scientists discovered an effective way to produce three-dimensional networks of blood vessels, vital for tissue survival yet a current stumbling block in regenerative medicine.
Neuroscientists are now able to distinguish two different forms of dementia using advanced imaging techniques. This is the first step towards early recognition of dementia in patients on the basis of brain networks.
A new study shows the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to increase in individuals under 50 years old, despite the fact that the overall rate of the disease has been declining in recent years. Following examination of more than 1 million CRC patient records over 10 years, researchers suggested that health-care providers should be more vigilant about detecting symptoms in younger patients.
Bacteria use a form of 'social media' communication, quorum sensing, to monitor how many of their species are in the neighborhood. This is important in the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. In a new study scientists explore the molecular mechanism whereby the quorum sensing response regulator LuxO regulates V. cholerae's pathogenicity.