Biologists reveal the hidden molecular basis of brain disorders and provide the first cell atlas of the hippocampus -- the part of the brain that helps regulate learning and memory -- as it is affected by traumatic brain injury. The researchers propose gene candidates for treating brain diseases associated with traumatic brain injury such as Alzheimer's disease and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Biologists have described the capacity of a small protein (a peptide) derived from chlorotoxin, found in scorpion venom (Giant Yellow Israeli scorpion), to carry drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
The more sensitive people are to the bitter taste of caffeine, the more coffee they drink, reports a new study. The sensitivity is based on genetics. Bitterness is natural warning system to protect us from harmful substances, so we really shouldn't like coffee. Scientists say people with heightened ability to detect coffee's bitterness learn to associate good things with it.
Soccer (football) coaches who have their emotions under control are more successful. Because emotions and how they are dealt with have a great impact on the performance of coaches and therefore also the team as a whole. Emotional processes in coaches are cyclic and can become stronger and stronger in a crisis. Trainers with great emotional competence, on the other hand, can break through a vicious circle easier.
In the retrospective study patients granted a wish were 2.5 times more likely to have fewer unplanned hospital admissions and 1.9 times more likely not to have to use the emergency department. This led to a decline in cost of care even after accounting for the average cost of the wish.
Scientists report the first animal model of glioma -- the most aggressive and most common form of brain cancer in the US -- that can also be used to study the long-term effects of radiation therapy in tumor-bearing brains. Using this mouse model, the researchers showed that a drug that temporarily suppresses a key component of the brain's immune system can prevent radiation-associated cognitive decline.
Color can impact the taste of food, and our experiences and expectations can affect how we taste food, according to Penn State researchers, who suggest this may have implications for how food and beverage industries should market their products.
In models that explore how humans act when their reputation is at stake, usually assumptions were made that are at odds with reality. In a new, more realistic model, scientists explore what happens when information is incomplete and people make mistakes. In their model, previously successful strategies do not lead to sustained cooperation, and in most cases do not evolve at all.
The majority of consumers, even those who prefer online shopping, think the extinction of brick-and-mortar stores would be bad for society, according to a new study that explores consumers' perceptions of today's transforming retail environment.
A new study finds that bias-based bullying does more harm to students than generalized bullying, particularly for students who are targeted because of multiple identities, such as race and gender. What's more, the study finds that efforts to mitigate these harms are less effective against bias-based bullying.
The siren call of addictive drugs can be hard to resist, and returning to the environment where drugs were previously taken can make resistance that much harder. However, addicts who exercise appear to be less vulnerable to the impact of these environmental cues. Now, research with mice suggests that exercise might strengthen a drug user's resolve by altering the production of peptides in the brain.
Researchers developed a versatile remote gaming interface that allowed experts as well as hundreds of citizen scientists all over the world through multiplayer collaboration and in real time to optimize a quantum gas experiment in a lab. Both teams quickly used the interface to dramatically improve upon the previous best solutions, that scientists had established after months of careful optimization. The experiment aims to unravel how humans solve complex, natural science problems.
For years, green has been the most reliable hue for live brain imaging, but after using a new high-throughput screening method, researchers have identified a new fluorescent protein that will make it possible for live neurons to glow red when activated.
Scientists have completed the world's largest ever study of typical sex differences and autistic traits. They tested and confirmed two long-standing psychological theories: the Empathizing-Systemizing theory of sex differences and the Extreme Male Brain theory of autism.