Researchers have made the first detailed map of the regions into which the brain of one of the most closely-related organisms to the vertebrates is divided and which could give us an idea of what our ancestor was like.
Reading supportive comments, 'likes' and private messages from social media friends prior to taking a test may help college students who have high levels of test-anxiety significantly reduce their nervousness and improve their scores, a new study suggests.
Individuals with a slender lower face are about 25 percent more likely to be left-handed. This unexpected finding was identified in 13,536 individuals who participated in three national surveys conducted in the United States. This association may shed new light on the origins of left-handedness, as slender jaws have also been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, a disease that has shaped human evolution and which today affects 2 billion people.
Food insecurity (FI) affects nearly 795 million people worldwide. Although a complex phenomenon encompassing food availability, affordability, utilization, and even the social norms that define acceptable ways to acquire food, FI can affect people's health beyond its impact on nutrition. A new study determined that FI was associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions (149 countries), independent of individuals' socioeconomic status.
Overweight and obese individuals with early stage type 2 diabetes (T2D) had more severe and progressive abnormalities in brain structure and cognition compared to normal-weight study participants, research indicates.
A newly discovered molecule increases appetite during fasting, and decreases it during gorging. The neuron-exciting protein, named NPGL – apparently aims to maintain body mass at a constant, come feast or famine. An evolutionary masterstroke, but not great news for those looking to trim down, or beef up for the summer.
A gene has been identified that allows neurons that release serotonin to evenly spread their branches throughout the brain. Without this gene, these branches become entangled, leading to haphazard serotonin distribution, and signs of depression in mice. These observations shed light on how neuronal wiring is critical to overall brain health, while also revealing a promising new research focus for psychiatric disorders associated with serotonin imbalance -- such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism.
Children in low-income families have an increased chance of thriving when their caregiver relationships include certain positive characteristics, according to new research. Using data from more than 2,200 low-income families surveyed as part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, researchers found that school-age children who reported high levels of parent involvement and supervision were more likely to report behaviors associated with positive emotional development and social growth.
Medically active substances are normally distributed via the blood -- either directly by injection into the bloodstream or indirectly, for example through the digestive tract after oral administration. In many diseases, however, it is of decisive importance to transport the active substance as efficiently as possible to the required target site. An example of this is the treatment of multiple sclerosis, where the pharmaceutical agents have to produce their effect above all in the central nervous system. However, this is especially difficult to achieve in the usual way via the blood due to special protective mechanisms such as the blood-brain barrier.
Girls start believing they aren't good at math, science and even computers at a young age -- but providing fun STEM activities at school and home may spark interest and inspire confidence, suggests a new study.
Less than half of Americans can recognize anxiety. Most people don't know what to do about depression even when they spot it. And nearly 8 in 10 don't recognize prescription drug abuse as a treatable problem.
Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster. That same idea is now being applied to neuroscience, with a software wrapper that can be used on existing neuron tracing algorithms to boost their ability to handle not just big, but enormous sets of data. The wrapper is called UltraTracer.
Although people living in consumer-based cultures such as the US often believe that they will be happier if they acquire more money, the findings of a newly published paper suggest that there may be downsides to this pursuit.
Little is known about which specific areas of the brain contribute to a patient's epileptic network or the roles these different areas play. As a group of researchers now reports one way to get closer to the complex wiring of the human brain is by merging concepts from a timed-based synchronization theory and space-based network theory to construct functional brain networks.
When people in a group are engaged with each other and with the world around them, their brainwaves show similar patterns. That's the conclusion of researchers who used portable EEG to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of high school students over the course of a semester as they went about their classroom activities. The findings highlight the promise of investigating the neuroscience of group interactions in real-world settings.
Pairing the antidepressant amitriptyline with drugs designed to treat central nervous system diseases, enhances drug delivery to the brain by inhibiting the blood-brain barrier in rats, new research shows. The blood-brain barrier serves as a natural, protective boundary, preventing most drugs from entering the brain.