Photodynamic therapy is often used to treat brain tumors because of its specificity — it can target very small regions containing cancerous cells while sparing the normal cells around it from damage. It works by injecting a drug called a photosensitizer into the bloodstream, where it gathers in cells, and then exposing the drug-filled cells to light. When the photosensitizer is exposed to this light, it emits what is known as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes the cells to die.
Scientists have developed a new low-temperature catalyst for producing high-purity hydrogen gas while simultaneously using up carbon monoxide (CO). The discovery could improve the performance of fuel cells that run on hydrogen fuel but can be poisoned by CO.
Chemists have found that commonly used polymer films containing two dyes can optically store data in a quaternary (four-symbol) code, potentially requiring about half as much space as binary code storage.
Biofilms are slimy, glue-like membranes that are produced by microbes in order to colonize surfaces. They protect microbes from the body's immune system and increase their resistance to antibiotics. Biofilms represent one of the biggest threats to patients in hospital settings. But there is good news: scientists have developed a novel enzyme technology that prevents the formation of biofilms and can also break them down.
Nanotechnologists have used 3-D laser printing to create centimeter-sized objects of graphene foam, a 3-D version of atomically thin graphene. The research could yield industrially useful quantities of bulk graphene.
Researchers have demonstrated a new method to calculate excitation energies. They used a new approach based on density functional methods, which use an atom-by-atom approach to calculate electronic interactions. By analyzing a benchmark set of small molecules and oligomers, their functional produced more accurate estimates of excitation energy compared to other commonly used density functionals, while requiring less computing power.
When it comes to testing for cancer, environmental pollution and food contaminants, traditional sensors can help. The challenges are that they often are bulky, expensive, non-intuitive and complicated. Now, one team reports that portable pressure-based detectors coupled with smartphone software could provide a simpler, more affordable alternative while still maintaining sensitivity.
Scientists have paved the way for carbon neutral fuel with the development of a new efficient catalyst that converts carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air into synthetic natural gas in a 'clean' process using solar energy.
Corn is grown not only for food, it is also an important renewable energy source. Renewable biofuels can come with hidden economic and environmental issues, and the question of whether corn is better utilized as food or as a biofuel has persisted since ethanol came into use. For the first time, researchers have quantified and compared these issues in terms of economics of the entire production system to determine if the benefits of biofuel corn outweigh the costs.
A recent discovery could lead to a new, more sustainable way to make ethanol without corn or other crops. This promising technology has three basic components: water, carbon dioxide and electricity delivered through a copper catalyst.
Compositing Cu2O nanoparticles with H2Ti3O7 nanotubes provides an effective strategy to reduce the bandgap energy and the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. There is an obvious synergistic effect between guest nanoparticles and host nanotubes due to the interaction to form heterojunction struction, which will enhance photocatalytic oxidation performance for removal of EM due to the stronger visible spectral response and wider absorbance in the long visble light region.
Scientists have measured a thin film made of a single type of conjugated polymer — a conducting plastic — as it interacted with ions and electrons. They show how there are rigid and non-rigid regions of the film, and that these regions could accommodate electrons or ions — but not both equally.