Researchers announced a new species of mammal from the Age of Dinosaurs, representing the most complete mammal from the Cretaceous Period of continental Africa, and providing tantalizing insights into the past diversity of mammals on the planet.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a central molecule of the global nitrogen cycle. A study reveals that microorganisms can grow on NO. Their results change our view of the earth's nitrogen cycle and how microorganisms regulate the release of greenhouse gases from natural and human-made environments.
Shorter intervals between primate births are associated with higher mortality rates in offspring, finds a new study of macaque monkeys. The results are consistent with previous research on human birth intervals, suggesting that this is a pattern of evolutionary origin.
Herpes viruses reactivate in more than half of crew aboard Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. While only a small proportion develop symptoms, virus reactivation rates increase with spaceflight duration and could present a significant health risk on missions to Mars and beyond.
Scientists have completed one of the largest and longest examinations to trace unprocessed nitrate movement in forests. The team found that some nitrate occasionally moves too fast for biological uptake, resulting in 'unprocessed' nitrate bypassing the otherwise effective filter of forest biology.
Cytochrome c is a small enzyme that plays an important role in the production of energy by mitochondria. It is also involved in signaling dangerous problems that warrant apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Using solid-state NMR, researchers have discovered that the signal induced by cytochrome c is more controlled than expected.
Researchers have been baffled by tropical rainforest diversity for over a century; 650 different tree species can exist in an area covering two football fields, yet similar species never grow next to each other. It seems like it's good to be different than your neighbors, but why?
Scientists have discovered that repellent odors suppress the perception of pleasant smells. This happens because certain brain structures that respond to attractive odors are inhibited by a repellent one. These processes in the brain are also reflected in the behavior of the flies. This helps them to avoid spoiled or infected food sources, which would have fatal consequences for the flies and their offspring.
A human's health is shaped both by environmental factors and the body's interactions with the microbiome, particularly in the gut. Genome sequences are critical for characterizing individual microbes and understanding their functional roles. However, previous studies have estimated that only 50 percent of species in the gut microbiome have a sequenced genome, in part because many species have not yet been cultivated for study.
The presence of oral bacteria in so-called cystic pancreatic tumours is associated with the severity of the tumour, researchers report. It is hoped that the results can help to improve diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Fruit flies make for stingy mothers, imparting only a portion of the genetic building blocks their offspring need to survive. The rest must be produced by the fertilized egg in its first few steps of growth.
Scientists have succeeded in reconstructing biomolecules in their mirror-image form. The researchers' goal is to create a mirror-image artificial protein synthesis system. Their aim is to produce mirror-image therapeutic proteins, such as antibodies, which would be protected from biological breakdown in the body and do not provoke any immune response.
'Great Dying' extinction survivors appear to have shared many of the same ecological roles as their predecessors, with one catch -- there was a surge in the number of individuals with more modern traits. These hardy stand-outs did a better job of driving recovery, making ongoing ecological interactions tense. Insights into this ancient marine system and its occupants can help guide modern conservation in identifying Earth's most resilient species in the face of environmental stress.