Scientists have identified specific gut bacteria that play an essential role in the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet. The study is the first to establish a causal link between seizure susceptibility and the gut microbiota -- the 100-trillion-or-so bacteria and other microbes that reside in our intestines.
The increase of skyscrapers in a city resembles the development of some living systems. Researchers have created an evolutionary genetic algorithm that, on the basis of the historical and economic data of an urban area, can predict what its skyline could look like in the coming years. The method has been applied successfully to the thriving Minato Ward, in Tokyo.
Twelve years ago, the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi, originating from the North American East Coast, appeared in northern European waters. Based on the first comprehensive data collection on the occurrence of this invasive jellyfish in Europe, scientists have now shown that ocean currents play a key role for this successful invasion.
A new study describes one of Xanthomonas citri's secretion systems and a signaling pathway that enhances its resistance against amoebae. Investigations might contribute for future forms of intervening and putting a stop on the development of X. citri, known for its persistency.
Glacial retreat in cold, high-altitude ecosystems exposes environments that are extremely sensitive to phosphorus input, new research shows. The finding upends previous ecological assumptions, helps scientists understand plant and microbe responses to climate change and could expand scientists' understanding of the limits to life on Earth.
Researchers were interested in the origin of a gene that encodes for protein, HERC5, shown to potently inhibit HIV. Scientists show that the gene first emerged in fish over 400 million years ago and has been involved in an evolutionary arms race with viruses ever since.
Symbioses between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be ecologically advantageous for both parties. Surprisingly, many partnerships, including some involving the ancestors of several modern fruits such as strawberries, blackberries and apples, have been dissolved during evolution.
Scientists have found a connection between bacteria in the gut and antitumor immune responses in the liver. Bacteria found in the gut of mice affect the liver's antitumor immune function. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms that lead to liver cancer and for therapeutic approaches to treat them.
The case for permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick bites keeps getting stronger. In new experiments, clothing treated with an insecticide known as permethrin had strong toxic effects on three primary species of ticks known to spread disease-causing pathogens in the United States. Exposure to permethrin interfered with the ticks' ability to move properly, making them sluggish and likely interfering with their ability to bite.
The urgent threat from Zika virus, which dominated headlines in early 2016, has passed. But research into how Zika and other mosquito-borne infections spread and cause epidemics is still very active. Researchers now report new details of how Zika emerged from Brazil and spread throughout Mexico and Central America, with evidence that some locations had more than one outbreak.
Eastern hemlock forests have been declining due to a non-native insect pest. A new study presents some of the best data showing how the decline of a single tree species leads to the disappearance of birds specialized to them. The data also indicate birds associated with non-hemlock habitat features are spreading into former hemlock forests. A single insect species has led to a less diverse bird community across this landscape.
A new study puts forth the most comprehensive tree of life for malaria parasites to date. Among the researchers' findings is that the diverse malaria parasite genus Plasmodium (which includes those species that infect humans) is composed of several distantly related evolutionary lineages, and, from a taxonomic standpoint, many species should be renamed.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major medical problem worldwide, impacting both human health and economic well-being. Scientists have now developed a new strategy for fighting bacteria. The scientists revealed the molecular action mechanism of a Legionella toxin and developed a first inhibitor.